عنوان مقاله [English]
In the educational systems around the world the idea of teaching 'how to think' rather than 'what to think' on the one hand and the use of content as a thinking tool within various disciplines has turned Critical Thinking (CT) into a substantive concept and an educational ideal. Conducting research to realize to what extent critical thinking as an educational ideal has become an educational reality is essential. This study aims to investigate the Iranian educational system with a focus on critical thinking. A nationwide survey was conducted among 300 school and university students and graduates. The results revealed that an overwhelming majority of Iranian graduates in all levels of education from diploma to PhD lack a substantive concept of CT and experienced a more or less didactic paradigm of education which focuses on mere memorization. Comparison of different groups of graduates belonging to various disciplines did not show significant differences as well.