نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی(عادی)
1 دانشجوی دکتری آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران
2 گروه آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The study investigated the role of age of arrival, length of resistance, amount and types of input, language-richness, and parents’ educational background in predicting Iranian immigrants’ speaking fluency, accuracy, complexity, and pronunciation. Homogenized through the CELPIP-General Test, 108 Iranian intermediate EFL learners in Canada were selected based on the availability sampling to complete the Alberta Language Environment Questionnaire (ALEQ) and participated in a speaking test. The performances were assessed based on Wigglesworth and Storch’s (2009) fluency, Storch and Wigglesworth’s (2007) accuracy, and Skehan’s (2009) complexity. Pronunciation was measured according to Jenkins’ (2000) Lingua Franca Core (LFC). The structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and the schematic illustration confirmed the hypothesized model (x^2⁄df= .037 RMSEA=.043; RMR =.01; GFI = .95; AGFI =.74; NFI =.70; CFI =.79; IFI =.88; TLI=.89) revealing that age of arrival (AoA), schooling in L2, and language-rich activities could predict fluency, accuracy, complexity, and pronunciation, however, LoR was a significant predictor of neither complexity nor pronunciation. While siblings' input/output could predict only speaking accuracy, maternal education significantly predicted speaking complexity. The findings supported the Critical Period Hypothesis, the significant role of AoA in the development of bilingualism, and the effectiveness of L2 instruction. The results confirmed the direction of the path model exposing the inefficacy of paternal and maternal education and parents' input/output in predicting the variances in immigrants' speaking ability. The findings suggested that parents maximize the number of activities in the second language and migrate to second-language countries before their children’s critical age.