عنوان مقاله [English]
Flipped learning is a relatively new approach in teaching. In flipped learning the place of teacher’s lectures and the homework is reversed to enhance active learning and engagement. This study was done to examine the effect of flipped classroom on English language novice teachers’ engagement and to examine their attitude towards flipped classroom. About 150 English female teachers were selected among different institutes and private schools of Tehran. The teachers were divided randomly into experimental and control groups. There were 75 teachers in two flipped classrooms and 75 teachers in two traditional classrooms. They were taught a course of “classroom management” in 6 weeks. Data was collected by a questionnaire which was completed by teachers to examine their perception of their engagements and their attitudes on flipped professional development. Results indicated that teachers in flipped professional development had higher engagement levels than teachers in lecture-based classes. Furthermore teachers had a positive attitude toward this instructional model.
عطاران، محمد (1393) .بچهها از درس عقبند، رشد مدرسه فردا،2
Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2015). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: Definition, rationale and a call for research. Higher Education Research & Development, 34,1e14.
Al-Harbi, A. H. (2015). A Flipped Learning Approach Using Social Media in Health Informatics Education. Creative Education, 6: 1466-1475.
Alvarez B (2012). Flipping the Classroom: Homework in Class, Lessons at Home. Washington, DC: National Education Association.
Anderson S (2012). Flip the classroom—Revising the role of the professor. In: 45th annual conference, 10–14 June. Available at: ascue.org.
Barab, S. A., MaKinster, J. G., Moore, J. A., & Cunningham, D. J. (2001). Designing and building an on-line community: The struggle to support sociability in the inquiry learning forum. Educational technology Research and Development, 49(4): 71-96.
Basal, A. (2015). The implementation of a flipped classroom in foreign language teaching. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 16(4). http://dx.doi.org/10.17718/tojde.72185.
Bates, S., & Galloway, R. (2012). The inverted classroom in a large enrolment introductory physics course: A case study. Paper presented at the HEA STEM Conference, London, United Kingdom.
Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2014). Flipped leaning: Gateway to student engagement. International society for Technology in Education.
Bergmann, J., Overmyer, J., & Wilie, B. (2011). The flipped class: What it is and what it is not. Retrieved July 23, 2014, from the World Wide Web: http://www.thedailyriff.com/articles/the-flipped-class-conversation-689.php.
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.
Betihavas, V., Bridgman, H., Kornhaber, R., & Cross, M. (2015). The evidence for ‘flipping out’: A systematic review of the flipped classroom in nursing education. Nurse Education Today, 6: 15–21.
Biggs, J.B., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university (4th Ed.). Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Education.
Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Language Teaching 36.2: 81–109.
Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33(8), 3–15, doi: 10.3102/0013189X033008003.
Blair, E., Maharaj, C., & Primus, S. (2016). Performance and perception in the flipped classroom. Education and Information Technologies, (April 2015): 1465–1482. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-015-9393-5.
Bray, M. H., Gause-Vega, C. L., Goldman, S. R., Secules, T., & Zech, L. K. (2000). Content-based collaborative inquiry:A professional development model for sustaining educational reform. Educational Psychologist, 35(3): 207-217.
Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., Franke, M. L., & Levi, L. (2001). Capturing teachers’ generative change: A Follow-up study of professional development in mathematics. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3): 653-689.
Clark, K. R. (2013). Examining the effects of the flipped model of instruction on student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom: An action research study. Ann Arbor, Capella University. Pro-Quest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 384AQ5 3592584).
Clark, K. R. (2015). The effects of the flipped model of instruction on student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom. Journal of Educators online, 12(1): 91-115.
Crandall, J-A. (2000). Language teacher education. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 20: 34–55.
Davis, H. A., & Shalter-Bruening, P., & Andrzejewski, C. E., (2008). Examining the efficacy of strategy intervention for ninth grade students: Are self-regulated learning strategies a form of social capital? Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY.
Desimone, L., Porter, A. C., Garet, M. S., Yoon, K. S., & Birman, B. F. (2002). Effects of professional development on teachers’ instruction: Results from a three-year longitudinal study. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(2): 81–112.
Elmaadaway, M. A. N. (2017). The effects of a flipped classroom approach on class engagement and skill performance in a blackboard course. British Journal of Educational Technology.
Edge, J., & Richards, K. (1993). Teachers develop teachers research. Oxford: Heinemann.
Fernandez, C., & Chokshi, S. (2002). A practical guide to translating lesson study for a U.S. setting. Phi Delta Kappan ,84(2): 128-134.
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74: 59–109.
Fulton, K. (2012). Upside down and inside out: flip your classroom to improve student learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 39(8): 12-17.
Ganser, T. (2000). “An ambitious vision of professional development for teachers”. In: NASSP Bulletin, 84(618), 6-12 Professional Development Effective? Results from a National Sample of Teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4): 915-945. doi:10.3102/00028312038004915
Gilboy, M. B., Heinerichs, S., & Pazzaglia, G. (2015). Enhancing student engagement using the flipped classroom. Journal of Nutrition and Behaviour, 47: 109–114.
Glatthorn, A. (1995). “Teacher development”. In: Anderson, L. (Ed.), International encyclopedia of teaching and teacher education (2nd ed). London: Pergamon Press.
Halili, S., & Zainuddin, Z. (2015). Flipping the classroom: What we know & what we don’t. The Online Journal of Distance Education & e-Learning, 3(1): 15-22.
Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., McKnight, K., & Arfstrom, K. M. (2013). The flipped learning model: A white paper based on the literature review titled “A Review of Flipped Learning.” Arlington,VA: Flipped Learning Network
Hardin, B. L., & Koppenhaver, D. A. (2016). Flipped Professional Development : An Innovation in Response to Teacher Insights, 60(1): 45–54. http://doi.org/10.1002/jaal.522.
Hill, P. (2014). Online educational delivery models: A descriptive view.
Hsia, J., Chang, C., & Tseng, A. (2014). Effects of individuals' locus of control and computer Self-Efficacy on their e-learning acceptance in high-tech companies. Behaviour & Information Technology, 33(1): 51e64.
Jarvis, W., Halvorson, W., Sadeque, S., & Johnston, S. (2014). A large class engagement (LCE) Model based on service-dominant logic (SDL) and flipped classrooms. Educational Research and Perspectives, 41: 1-24.
Johnson, G. (2012). Students, please turn to YouTube for your assignment. Education Canada, 52(5): 16-18.
Karimi, M, Hamzavi, R. (2017). The Effect of Flipped Model of Instruction on EFL Learners ’ Reading Comprehension : Learners ’ Attitudes in Focus, Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(1). http://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.8n.1p.95.
Kang, N. (2015). The comparison between regular and flipped classrooms for EFL Korean adult learners. Multimedia- Assisted Language Learning, 18(3): 41-72.
King, A. (1993). From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College Teaching, 41(1): 30-35. doi: 10.1080/87567555.1993.9926781.
Kurihara, Y. (2016). Flipped Classroom : Effects on Education for the Case of Economics, 3(2): 65–71. http://doi.org/10.20448/journal.509/2016.3.2/509.2.65.71.
Lage, M. J., G. J. Platt, and M. Treglia. (2000). “Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment.” The Journal of Economic Education, 31(1): 30–43.
Lemmer, C. (2013). A view from the flip side: using the "inverted classroom" to enhance the legal information literacy of the international LL.M. student. Law Library Journal, 105(4): 461-491.
Lieberman, A. (1995). Practices that support teacher development: Transforming conceptions of professional learning. Innovating and Evaluating Science Education: NSF Evaluation Forums, 1992-94, 67.
Lingard, B. (2003). Where to in gender policy in education after recuperative masculinity politics? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 7: 33-56.
Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: A user’s manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Mazur, E. (2009).Farewell, lecture? Science, 323(5910): 50-51. doi:10.1126/science. 1168927
McLaughlin, J. E., Roth, M. T., Glatt, D. M., Gharkholonarehe, N., Davidson, C. A., Griffin, L. M., et al. (2014). The flipped classroom: A course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine, 89: 236e243.
McLeskey, J., & Waldron, N. L. (2002). Professional development and inclusive schools: Reflections on effective practice. The Teacher Educator, 37(3): 159-172.
Metallidou, P & Viachou, A. (2007). Beliefs, cognitive engagement, and achievement in language and mathematics in elementary school children, International Journal of Psychology, 2-15.
Millard, E. (2012). Five reasons flipped classrooms work. University Business, 15(11): 26-29.
Moran, K., & Milsom, A. (2015). The Flipped Classroom in Counselor Education, 54(March), 32–43.http://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6978.2015.00068.x.
Moravec, M., Williams, A., Aguilar-Roca, N., & O' Dowd, D. K. (2010). Learn before lecture: A strategy that improves learning outcomes in a large introductory biology class. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 9(04): 473-481.
O’Flaherty, J., & Craig, P. (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: a scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education, 25: 85–95.
Ojalvo, H.E., &Doyne, S. (2011). Five ways to flip your classroom with the New York Times. Retrieved from http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/08/five-ways-to-flip-your-classroom-with-the-new-york-times/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=1.
Ouda, H., & Ahmed, K. (2016). Flipped Learning As A New Educational Paradigm : An Analytical Critical Study, 12(10): 417–445. http://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2016. v12n10p417
Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of engineering education, 93(3): 223-231.
Richards, J. C. (2008). Second language teacher education today. RELC Journal, 39(2): 158e177.
Rosenberg T (2013). Turning education upside down. New York Times, 11 October. Available at: http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/09/turning-education-upside-down/?_r=0.
Rundquist A (2012). What Is the Best use of Class Time? Exploring the Issues of the Flipped Classroom (Bulletin of the American Physical Society). College Park, MD: APS.
Sadaghiani, H. R. (2012). On line pre-lectures: An alternative to textbook reading assignments. The Physics Teacher, 50(5): 301-303. doi: 10.1119/1.3703549.
Sciarra,D. & Seirup , H. (2008). The Multidimensionality of school Engagement and Math Achievement Among Racial groups, Professional School counseling, v 11,218-228.
See, Sharon و Conry, John. (2014). Flip My Class! A faculty development demonstration of a flipped-class. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning،6(4): 585-588.
Sjøberg, S. (2010). Constructivism and learning. In P. Peterson, E. Baker & B. McGaw (Eds.),International Encyclopedia of Education (Vol. 5, pp. 485-490).Oxford UK: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-044894-7.00467-X.
Steed, A. (2012). The flipped classroom. Teaching Business &Economics, 16(3): 9-11.
Strayer, J. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15:171e193.
Sykes, G., Bird, T., & Kennedy, M. (2010). Teacher Education: Its Problems and Some Prospects. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(5): 464–476. http://doi.org/10. 1177/0022487110375804.
Sweet, D.R. (2014). Micro lectures in a flipped classroom: Application, creation, and resources. Mid-Western Educational Researcher, 26(1):52-59.
Talley, C. P., & Scherer S. (2013). The enhanced flipped classroom: Increasing academic performance with student-recorded lectures and practice testing in a “flipped” STEM course. The Journal of Negro Education, 82(3): 339-347.
Tanner, M., & Scott, E. (2015). A Flipped Classroom Approach to Teaching Systems Analysis , Design and Implementation ,Journal of Information Technology Education, 14: 219–241.
Thompson, G. A., & Ayers, S. F. (2015). Measuring Student Engagement in a Flipped Athletic Training Classroom , Athletic Training Education Journal ,10(4): 315–322. http://doi.org/10.4085/1004315.
Vaughn, M. (2014). Flipping the learning: An investigation into the use of the flipped classroom model in an introductory teaching course. Educational Research and Perspectives, 41: 25- 41.
Willey, K., & Gardner, A. (2013). Flipping your classroom without flipping out. Paper presented at 41 SEFI Conference, Leuven, Belgium.
Yadav, P. K., (2011). Blogging as a means of professional development for ELT professionals. Journal of NELTA, 16(1-2): 123-132.
Zainuddin, Z., & Attaran, M. (2017). Malaysian students 'perceptions of flipped classroom': a case study, 3297(May). http://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2015.1102079