مشکلات نوشتاری زبان آموزان ایرانی: ایجاد یک چارچوب بافت- حساس برای تمرین مهارت نوشتن

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی(عادی)

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری-آموزش زبان انگلیسی-دانشگاه آزاد-قشم-ایران

2 استادیار-آموزش زبان انگلیسی-دانشگاه آزاد-قشم-ایران

3 پروفسور-آموزش زبان انگلیسی-دانشگاه دولتی- شیراز-ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش کیفی به بررسی مشکلات نوشتاری زبان آموزان ایرانی پرداخته و چهارچوبی بافت-حساس (Context-sensitive Framework)را با توجه به این مشکلات، برای دانشجویان زبان برای تمرین نوشتن ارائه داده است. برای دستیابی به اهداف مطالعه، بر اساس نمونه گیری آسان (Convenience sampling)، 14 دانشجوی کارشناسی رشته مترجمی زبان انگلیسی از دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تنکابن در این پژوهش شرکت کردند. هر کدام از آنها مقاله ای پنج پاراگرافی نوشتند و در مصاحبه ای نیمه-ساختاری(Semi-structured interview) شرکت کردند تا مشکلات خود را در زمینه نوشتن بیان کنند. محققان مقاله ها را با توجه به سر فصل پنج مؤلفه ای جکوب(1981) Jacob, 1981)) ارزیابی کردند تا نوع مشکلات نوشتن را شناسایی کنند. علاوه بر این، مصاحبه ها رونویسی شدند و داده ها بر اساس مراحل سیستماتیک کوربین و استراوس(2014) &Strauss (Corbin, 2014) که شامل کد گذاریهای باز، محوری و انتخابی (Open, Axial and Selective Coding)می باشند کدگذاری شدند. یافته ها نشان داند که دانشجویان ایرانی بیش ازهرچیزی در مکانیک نوشتار مشکل داشتند.پس از آن، گرامر، سازماندهی درایجاد مؤلفه های مقاله ، انسجام ، محتوا و واژگان به ترتیب به عنوان بیشترین تاکمترین میزان فراوانی مشکلات شناسایی شدند. علاوه بر این، احساسات منفی مانند اضطراب و عدم انگیزه باعث برخی مشکلات نوشتاری شدند. بر این اساس، محققان یک چارچوب سه مرحله ای بافت- حساس برای تمرین نوشتن ایجاد کردند. در این چارچوب فعالیت های مراحل پیش از نوشتن، حین نوشتن و پس از نوشتن با توجه به مشکلات نوشتاری دانشجویان مشخص شدند تا به آنها کمک شود بر مشکلات نوشتاری خود غلبه کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Iranian EFL Learners' Writing Problems: Developing a Context-Sensitive Framework to Practice Writing

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyedeh Zeinab Rahmatipasand 1
  • Shahram Afraz 2
  • Seyyed Ayatollah Razmjoo 3
1 Ph.D. Student in TEFL, Department of English Language, Qeshm Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of TEFL, Department of English Language, Qeshm Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran
3 Full Professor of TEFL, Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

This qualitative study investigated Iranian EFL learners' writing difficulties and proposed a context-sensitive framework considering these difficulties for English language students to practice writing. To achieve the objectives of the study, based on the convenience sampling, 14 undergraduate students majoring in English Language Translation from Islamic Azad University of Tonekabon participated in this study. Each of them wrote a five-paragraph essay. Also, they took part in a semi-structured interview to assert their difficulties regarding writing. The researchers evaluated the essays according to Jacob's five-component rubric (1981) to identify the kind of writing problems. Also, the interviews were transcribed and the data were codified based on Corbin and Strauss (2014) systematic steps of open, axial, and selective coding. The findings revealed that Iranian EFL students had problems in mechanics of writing; grammar; organization including developing the components of the essay, coherence and cohesion; content; and vocabulary as the most to the least frequent problems respectively. Moreover, negative feelings such as anxiety and lack of motivation caused some writing problems. Accordingly, the researchers developed a three-phase context-sensitive framework for practicing writing. In this framework the activities of each phase of prewriting, while writing, and post writing are specified according to the identified writing problems of the students to help them overcome their problems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Context-sensitive Framework
  • Grounded theory
  • Iranian EFL learners
  • Writing skill
  • Writing Problems
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