استفاده از منطق فازی در ارزیابی مداخلات فراشناختی در رابطه با شنوندگان مبتدی و حرفه‌ای زبان دوم

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی(عادی)

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

2 استادیار دپارتمان زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ی ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

چکیده

مداخله‌ی فراشناختی به عنوان یکی از روش‌های موثر بر افزایش مهارت و درک شنوایی شناخته می‌شود. اخیرا تحقیقاتی بر روی شنوندگان مبتدی و حرفه‌ای زبان دوم صورت گرفته است و نشان داده است که مداخله‌ی فراشناختی به شنوندگان مبتدی زبان دوم، بیشتر از شنوندگان حرفه‌ای زبان دوم کمک می‌کند. اما، از آن‌جا که شنوندگان حرفه‌ای زبان دوم به درجه‌ی بالایی از یادگیری رسیده‌اند، دستیابی به پیشرفت بیشتر، برای آن‌ها دشوارتر خواهد بود. بنابراین، مقیاس پیشرفت بین شنوندگان مبتدی و شنوندگان حرفه‌ای، متفاوت است، و برای تجزیه و تحلیل میزان پیشرفت، صرفاً یافتن میزان مهارت در قبل و بعد از آزمون کفایت نمی‌کند. در این مطالعه، از رویکرد تجزیه و تحلیل منطق فازی استفاده شده است تا ابتدا مقیاس‌های متفاوت را یکسان‌سازی و سپس پیشرفت را مقایسه کند. برای بررسی سؤالات تحقیق از رویکرد کمی و از طرح نیمه‌آزمایشی استفاده شده است. 65 دانشجوی ایرانی شامل 31 شنونده‌ی مبتدی و 34 شنونده‌ی حرفه‌ای انتخاب شدند. آموزش بر اساس مداخله‌ی فراشناختی در هشت جلسه صورت گرفت. نتیجه‌ی به دست آمده بر اساس روش تجزیه و تحلیل منطق فازی نشان داده است که کاملاً برخلاف مطالعات قبلی، مداخلات فراشناختی تاثیر بیشتری در پیشرفت شنوندگان حرفه‌ای، نسبت به شنوندگان مبتدی، داشته است. این مطالعه در زمینه‌ی ارزیابی مفید است. ارزیابی‌ها فقط بر اساس تفاوت نتایج پیش/پس‌آزمون ممکن است در برخی موارد کافی و مناسب نباشد. محققان و معلمان بهتر است عوامل دیگری را نیز در قضاوت‌های خود لحاظ کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Using Fuzzy Logic in assessing metacognitive intervention in relation to Less-/more-skilled L2 Listeners

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Alavidoost 1
  • Hossein Bozorgian 2
1 University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
2 Assistant professor at English language and literature department, faculty of humanities and social sciences, university of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Metacognitive intervention is known as one of the effective approaches to increase listening skills and comprehension. Recent research on less-/more-skilled L2 listeners indicated that metacognitive intervention is more rewarding for less-skilled L2 listeners than more-skilled counterparts. However, since more-skilled L2 listeners achieved a repertoire of knowledge and skills, it is more difficult for them to achieve more improvement. Therefore, the scales of improvements are different between less- and more-skilled L2 listeners, and mere comparison between pre- and post-tests does not suffice. In this study, however, Fuzzy logic analysis was employed as a remedial approach in order to equalize these scales. Next, the comparison was made between less- and more-skilled L2 listeners to find out which group would logically benefit more from metacognitive intervention. A quantitative approach and quasi-experimental design were used to address the research questions. 65 Iranian students were selected including 31 more-skilled (15 advanced and 16 upper-intermediate) and 34 less-skilled (18 intermediate and 16 lower-intermediate). The instruction was based on metacognitive intervention in eight sessions. The result, which was based on a Fuzzy logic analysis approach, indicated that more-skilled L2 listeners benefited more than less-skilled L2 listeners from metacognitive intervention, and is quite contrary to the previous studies. This study is beneficial to the field of assessment. Assessment based solely on differences in pre-/post-test results may not be adequate in some cases. Researchers and teachers should consider other factors in their judgments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Listening Performance
  • Metacognitive Intervention
  • Less- skilled L2 listeners
  • More-skilled L2 listeners
  • Fuzzy logic
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