عنوان مقاله [English]
As a cumulative and elaborative discourse marker, and is the most frequent, crucial, creative, effective, and complex discourse monitoring element. This explorative investigation enjoys two scientific and research informing resources: analysis of key authors studies and interpretation of creative corpuses in Persian and German poetry. Applying Schiffrin’s (2006) model of discourse planes of talk to discover its patterns of use and functions, this article analyzed ‘and’ in Hafiz and Goethe poems. The results revealed that this marker had uses both in primary and secondary planes of discourse. The primary planes consisted of functions in ideational structure and plane of discourse establishing temporal, cause and effect, and topic relations. And the secondary planes included functions in the action and information structure of discourse dealing with command, narration, purpose, inference, justification, emphasis, balance, expansion, contradiction, and expectations. Unfortunately, these discoursal strategies and functions are not analyzed in grammar books and dictionaries. Moreover, as the results showed because of its pragmatic and indexical properties, this marker combined ideational, action, and information planes of discourse. The combination of and with other markers was another discoursal outcome of this study. Due to the exploration of new, different, and unique functions for this marker, some pedagogical and research implications in teaching languages, classroom strategies and its management, material development, and lexicography are discussed.