مداخله ی فراشناختی: عملکرد شنیداری و آگاهی فراشناختی یادگیرندگان با ظرفیت حافظه ی کاری بالا

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دپارتمان زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ی ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

2 دانشجوی ارشد دپارتمان زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشکده ی ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه مازندران، مازندران، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر تاثیر مداخله‌ی فراشناختی بر عملکرد شنیداری و آگاهی فراشناختی یادگیرندگان فوق متوسطه‌ی انگلیسی با ظرفیت حافظه‌ی کاری بالا را بررسی می کند. 152 یادگیرنده‌ی مذکر ایرانی سنین 15 تا 25 سال تحت آزمون تعیین سطح آکسفورد قرار گرفتند، و 86 نفر به عنوان یادگیرندگان سطح فوق متوسطه شناسایی شدند. سپس، آن ها تحت آزمون حافظه‌ی عددی بصری قرار گرفتند و 60 یادگیرنده‌ با ظرفیت حافظه‌ی کاری بالا انتخاب و بطور تصادفی به گروه های تجربی (30 نفر) و شاهد (30 نفر) تخصیص یافتند. گروه تجربی از طریق یک چرخه‌ی آموزشی به مدت 10 جلسه تحت مداخله‌‌ی فراشناختی قرار گرفت، در حالی که گروه شاهد روش مرسوم را دنبال نمود. شرکت کنندگان پرسشنامه‌ی آگاهی فراشناختی شنیداری را تکمیل کردند و قبل و بعد از مداخله، تحت آزمون های شنیداری آیلتس قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد گروه تجربی در مقایسه با گروه شاهد پیشرفت بالاتری را برحسب عملکرد شنیداری با اندازه‌ی اثر بزرگ داشت. همچنین، گروه تجربی استفاده‌ی بسیار بیشتری از توجه هدایت شده، ترجمه‌ی ذهنی و دانش شخصی داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Metacognitive Intervention: High WMC Learners’ Listening Performance and Metacognitive Awareness

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Bozorgian 1
  • Meysam Muhammadpour 2
1 Assistant professor at English language and literature department, faculty of humanities and social sciences, university of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
2 MA student at English language and literature department, faculty of humanities and social sciences, university of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study investigated the effect of the metacognitive intervention on the listening performance and metacognitive awareness of upper-intermediate EFL learners with high working memory capacity (WMC). 152 Iranian male learners aged between 15 and 25 years were given Oxford Placement Tests (OPT), and 86 were identified as upper-intermediate learners. They were further given the Visual Digit Span Test (DST), and 60 high WMC learners were selected and randomly assigned to experimental (N=30), and control (N=30) groups. The experimental group received the metacognitive intervention through a pedagogical cycle for 10 sessions while the control group followed their traditional approach. The participants were asked to complete the Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ) and to take the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) listening tests before and after the intervention. The results suggested that the experimental group had a higher gain with a large effect size in terms of listening performance than the control group. In addition, the experimental group reported the significantly higher use of directed attention, mental translation and person knowledge.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • metacognition
  • Pedagogical Cycle
  • working memory capacity
  • Listening Performance
  • Metacognitive Awareness

Allan, D. (2004). Oxford Placement Test 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Andre, T., & Phye, G. D. (1986). Cognition, learning, and education. Cognitive
classroom learning: Understanding, thinking, and problem solving, 1-19.
Andringa, S., Olsthoorn, N., van Beuningen, C., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J. (2012).
Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: An
individual differences approach. Language Learning, 62(s2), 49-78.
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Irvine, C. K. S., & Walker, D. (2018). Introduction to research in
education: Cengage Learning.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature
reviews neuroscience, 4(10), 829.
Baddeley, A. D. (2017). The concept of working memory: A view of its current state and
probable future development. In Exploring Working Memory (pp. 99-106):
Routledge.
Barrett, L. F., Tugade, M. M., & Engle, R. W. (2004). Individual differences in working
memory capacity and dual-process theories of the mind. Psychological bulletin,
130(4), 553.
1080 پژوهش های زبانشناختی در زبان های خارجی، دورة 9، شمارة 4، زمستان 1398
Bozorgian, H. (2012). Metacognitive instruction does improve listening comprehension.
ISRN Education, 2012. pp.?
Bozorgian, H. (2014). The role of metacognition in the development of EFL learners’
listening skill. International Journal of Listening, 28(3), 149-161.
Bozorgian, H. (2015). Less-skilled learners benefit more from metacognitive instruction
to develop listening comprehension. International Journal of Research Studies in
Language Learning, 4(1), 3-12.
Bozorgian, H., & Fakhri, A. E. (2018). Multimedia listening comprehension:
Metacognitive instruction or metacognitive instruction through dialogic interaction.
ReCALL, 30(1), 131-152.
Brunfaut, T., & Revesz, A. (2015). The role of task and listener characteristics in second
language listening. TESOL Quarterly, 49(1), 141-168.
Chamot, A. U., & Kupper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction.
Foreign Language Annals, 22(1), 13-22.
Cook, T. D., Campbell, D. T., & Shadish, W. (2002). Experimental and quasiexperimental
designs for generalized causal inference: Houghton Mifflin Boston.
Cross, J. (2009). Effects of listening strategy instruction on news videotext
comprehension. Language Teaching Research, 13(2), 151-176.
Cross, J. (2010). Metacognitive instruction for helping less-skilled listeners. ELT
journal, 65(4), 408-416.
Cross, J. (2011). Social-Cultural-Historical Contradictions in an L2 Listening Lesson: A
Joint Activity System Analysis. Language Learning, 61(3), 820-867.
Cross, J. (2015). Metacognition in L2 listening: Clarifying instructional theory and
practice. TESOL Quarterly, 49(4), 883-892.
Eggen P. & Kauchak, D. (2007). Educational Psychology, Windows on Classrooms.
Seventh Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall Publishing.
Pgs. 202-227.
Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. The nature of
intelligence, 231-235.
Gathercole, S. E., Holmes, J., Alloway, T. P., Hilton, K. A., Place, M., & Elliott, J. E.
(2010). Executive function deficits in children with low working memory. In
preparation.
Geranpayeh, A. (2003). A quick review of the English Quick Placement Test. Research
notes, 12, 8-10.
Gignac, G. E., Reynolds, M. R., & Kovacs, K. (2017). Digit Span Subscale Scores May
Be Insufficiently Reliable for Clinical Interpretation: Distinguishing Between
Stratified Coefficient Alpha and Omega Hierarchical. Assessment,
1073191117748396.
مداخلة فراشناختی: عملکرد شنیداری و آگاهی فراشناختی یادگیرندگان با ظرفیت حافظة کاری بالا 1081
Goh, C. (1997). Metacognitive awareness and second language listeners. ELT journal,
51(4), 361-369.
Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive instruction for second language listening development:
Theory, practice and research implications. RELC journal, 39(2), 188-213.
Goh, C. C. (2000). A cognitive perspective on language learners' listening
comprehension problems. System, 28(1), 55-75.
Goh, C. C. (2002). Exploring listening comprehension tactics and their interaction
patterns. System, 30(2), 185-206.
Goh, C. C., & Hu, G. (2014). Exploring the relationship between metacognitive
awareness and listening performance with questionnaire data. Language Awareness,
23(3), 255-274.
Hashemi, A., & Daneshfar, S. (2018). A Review of the IELTS Test: Focus on Validity,
Reliability, and Washback. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and
Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 39-52.
Hestvik, A., Bradley, E., & Bradley, C. (2012). Working memory effects of gappredictions
in normal adults: an event-related potentials study. Journal of
psycholinguistic research, 41(6), 425-438.
Hulstijn, J. H. (2001). Intentional and incidental second language vocabulary learning:
A reappraisal of elaboration, rehearsal and automaticity: na.
Hummel, K. M., & French, L. M. (2010). Phonological memory and implications for the
second language classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 66(3), 371-391.
IBM Corp. Released 2016. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0. Armonk,
NY: IBM Corp.
Janusik, L., & Keaton, S. A. (2011). Listening metacognitions: Another key to teaching
listening. Listening Education, 3(2), 35-44.
Juffs, A., & Harrington, M. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 learning.
Language Teaching, 44(2), 137-166.
Kormos, J., & Sáfár, A. (2008). Phonological short-term memory, working memory and
foreign language performance in intensive language learning. Bilingualism:
Language and cognition, 11(2), 261-271.
Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition. Second Language Learning, 3(7), 19-
39.
Larson-Hall, J. (2010). Chapter 4: Changing the Way We Do Statistics: Hypothesis
Testing, Power, Effect Size, and Other Misunderstood Issues. A Guide to Doing
Statistics Research Using SPSS, 96-125.
Lynch, T. (2011). Academic listening in the 21st century: Reviewing a decade of
research. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10(2), 79-88.
1082 پژوهش های زبانشناختی در زبان های خارجی، دورة 9، شمارة 4، زمستان 1398
Maftoon, P., & Fakhri Alamdari, E. (2016). Exploring the effect of metacognitive
strategy instruction on metacognitive awareness and listening performance through a
process-based approach. International Journal of Listening, 1-20.
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (1998). Individual differences in second language
proficiency: Working memory as language aptitude. Foreign language learning:
Psycholinguistic studies on training and retention, 339-364.
Nunan, D. (1997). Approaches to teaching listening in the language classroom. Paper
presented at the Plenary.
Olsthoorn, N. M., Andringa, S., & Hulstijn, J. H. (2014). Visual and auditory digit-span
performance in native and non-native speakers. International Journal of
Bilingualism, 18(6), 663-673.
Richards, J. C. (2005). Second thoughts on teaching listening. RELC journal, 36(1), 85-
92.
Richards, J. C. (2008). Teaching listening and speaking from theory to practice. New
York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J. C., & Renandya, W. A. (2002). Methodology in language teaching: An
anthology of current practice: Cambridge university press.
Roberts, L., Marinis, T., Felser, C., & Clahsen, H. (2007). Antecedent priming at trace
positions in children’s sentence processing. Journal of psycholinguistic research,
36(2), 175-188.
Rubin, J. (1994). A review of second language listening comprehension research. The
modern language journal, 78(2), 199-221.
Sakai, H. (2018). Working Memory in Listening. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English
Language Teaching, 1-6.
Satori, M. (2012). The role of working memory in L2 listening comprehension.
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied
Linguistics (pp. 8-9).
UCLES, C. U. P. a. (2017). Cambridge IELTS 12 Academic Student's Book with
Answers: Authentic Examination Papers (IELTS Practice Tests).
Vandergrift, L. (2002). 'It Was Nice to See That Our Predictions Were Right':
Developing Metacognition in L2 Listening Comprehension. Canadian Modern
Language Review, 58(4), 555-575.
Vandergrift, L. (2002). Listening: theory and practice in modern foreign language
competence. In.
Vandergrift, L. (2003). Orchestrating strategy use: Toward a model of the skilled second
language listener. Language Learning, 53(3), 463-496.
Vandergrift, L. (2007a). Recent developments in second and foreign language listening
comprehension research. Language Teaching, 40(3), 191-210.
مداخلة فراشناختی: عملکرد شنیداری و آگاهی فراشناختی یادگیرندگان با ظرفیت حافظة کاری بالا 1083
Vandergrift, L., Goh, C., Mareschal, C. J., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (2006). The
metacognitive awareness listening questionnaire: Development and validation.
Language Learning, 56(3), 431-462.
Vandergrift, L., & Goh, C. C. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening:
Metacognition in action: Routledge.
Vandergrift, L., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (2010). Teaching L2 learners how to listen does
make a difference: An empirical study. Language Learning, 60(2), 470-497.
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler adult intelligence scale-III. In: San Antonio, TX: The
Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. A. (1997a). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. New York:
Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. A. (1997b). Wechsler Memory Scale-III. New York: Psychological
Corporation.
Weinberg, A. (1995). Nature et validité du test de classement de l’Institut des langues
secondes. Canadian Modern Language Review, 51(4), 636-660.
Woods, D. L., Kishiyama, M. M., Yund, E. W., Herron, T. J., Edwards, B., Poliva, O., . .
. Reed, B. (2011). Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory.
Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 33(1), 101-111.
Worthington, D. L., & Bodie, G. D. (2017). The sourcebook of listening research:
Methodology and measures: John Wiley & Sons.
Zhang, D., & Goh, C. C. (2006). Strategy knowledge and perceived strategy use:
Singaporean students’ awareness of listening and speaking strategies. Language
Awareness, 15(3), 199-119.
Zhou, H., Rossi, S., & Chen, B. (2017). Effects of working memory capacity and tasks in
processing L2 complex sentence: evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals.
Frontiers in psychology, 8, 595.