درآمدی بر آسیب شناسی تدریس فرهنگ در ایران: بررسی رابطۀ بین فرهنگ زدایی و هوش هیجانی در بین زبان آموزان انگلیسی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

زبان آموزانی که انگلیسی را به عنوان زبان خارجی می-آموزند ممکن است در حین یادگیری زبان مقصد دچار نوعی بحران هویت شوند. مطالعه‌ی حاضر به بررسی رابطه‌ی بین فرهنگ‌زداییو هوش هیجانی در میان زبان‌آموزان ایرانی می‌پردازد و بر آن است که دریابد آیا فرایند رویارویی زبان آموزان با زبان انگلیسی منجر به بیگانگی فرهنگی در آنان می‌شود. به این منظور 80 دانشجوی زبان انگلیسی دانشگاه زنجان در پژوهش شرکت داده شدند و از آن‌ها خواسته شد که به تست وابستگی فرهنگ بومی (پیشقدم، 2012) و نیز تست هوش هیجانی (شات و همکاران، 1998) پاسخ دهند. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که رابطه‌ی معناداری بین هوش هیجانی و فرهنگ‌زدایی وجود دارد. از آنجایی‌که مسأله‌ی آموزش زبان انگلیسی در ایران و تأثیرات احتمالی آن بر هویت فرهنگی حائز اهمیت بسیاری است، بررسی تأثیرات احتمالی فرهنگ زبان انگلیسی بر هویت زبان آموزان ایرانی می‌تواند در مسائل آموزش زبان راهگشا باشد. به ویژه توصیه می‌شود که برنامه ریزان درسی توجه ویژه‌ای به بایدها و نبایدهای گنجاندن مقوله فرهنگ در کتب آموزشی زبان انگلیسی داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Introduction to the Pathology of Teaching Culture in Iran: A Study of the Relationship between Deculturation and Emotional Intelligence among EFL Learners

نویسندگان [English]

  • Robab Khosravi
  • Seyedeh Arezoo Rafie
University of Zanjan
چکیده [English]

Learners of English as a foreign language (EFL learners) are the products of degree of identity conflict experienced while learning a language. Learning English means crossing the boundaries of one’s home culture into a foreign culture – a challenging cross-cultural experience influencing one’s home culture attachment (Pishghadam & Ordoubady 2011). In this study, 80 EFL learners of University of Zanjan participated in this project. They were asked to fill in the Home Culture Attachment Scale (HCAS) (Pishghadam 2012). Also, Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) (Schutte et. al 1998) was used to assess emotional intelligence. The results of the study indicated that there is statically positive correlation between EI and deculturation. Due to the importance of English language learning in Iran and its impact on identity change, investigating the influence of cultural contact on learners in the process of language learning can shed light on the Iranian context of English language learning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deculturation
  • Emotional intelligence
  • Cultural Identity
  • EFL Learners
  • Teaching Culture
آقابابایی، ن. هوش هیجانی. ماهنامه معرفت،ش. 119، ویژه‌نامه روان‌شناسی. برگرفته از باشگاه اندیشه http://www.bashgah.net/fa/content/show/8782

Abbaspour.E., Rajaee Nia.M.,& Zare.J. (2012). How to integrate culture in second language education?Journal of Education and Practice, 10: 20-24.

Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991).An Ethological Approach to Personality Development.American Psychologist.

Alptekin, C. (2002). Towards intercultural communicative competence in ELT.ELT Journal, 56: 57-64.

Anderson, B. (1991).Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. New York: Verso.

Atkinson, D. (1999). TESOL and culture.TESOL Quarterly, 33,625–654.

Azizi, Z.,Azar Hosseini, F. Pishghadam, R., Ghapanchi, Z. (2015). Investigating the Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Cultural Intelligence and their Home Cultural Attachment.Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6: 575-581.

Bada, E. (2000). Culture in ELT.Journal of Social Sciences, 6:100- 110.

Baker, W. (2003). Should culture be an overt component of EFL instruction outside of English speaking countries? The Thai context. Asian EFL Journal Press, 5: 1-20.

Bakhtin, M. (1981).The dialogical imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1973).Attachment and loss. Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books. 

Block, D. (2007).  Second language identities. New York, NY: Continuum.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (2nd. Ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.         

Byram, M. (1997).Cultural awareness in vocabulary learning. Language Learning Journal, 16: 51-57.

Byram, M. & Morgan, C. (1994).Teaching-and-Learning Language-and-Culture. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Ellis, G. (1996). How culturally appropriate is the communicative approach? ELT Journal, ,50:213-218.

Farnia, Maryam & R. Raja (2009).Contrastive pragmatic study and teaching culture in English language classroom – a case study.Paper presented at the 7th International Conference by the school of language and linguistics studies (SOLLS), FSSK, Malaysia: University Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Galajda, D. (2011).The contribution of FL learning experiences to the development of multicultural identity. New York: Springer.

Gao, Y. H. (2010). Models of L2 identity development revisited in the context of globalization. China: Shanghai Education.

Genc, B. & Bada, E. (2005).Culture in language learning and teaching. The Reading Matrix, 5: 73-81.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.

Gu, M. (2010). National identity in EFL learning: A longitudinal inquiry. Changing English: Studies in Culture and Education, 17: 57-67.

Hall, D. & Hewings, A. (Eds.) (2001).Innovation in English language teaching: A reader. New York: Routledge.

Hammerly, H. (1982).Synthesis in language teaching. Blaine, WA: Second Language Publications. 

Idrees, A. (2007). Teaching and learning culture of a second language. Retrived fromhttp://www.education.up.ac.za/presentations/word/teaching

Keller, H. (2012).Cross-cultural psychology: Taking people, contexts, and situations seriously. NY: Oxford University Press.

Kirkpatrick, A. (2007).World Englishes: Implications for international communication and English language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kramsch, C. (2013). Culture in foreign language teaching, Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 1: 57-78.

Kramsch, C.(1993).Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kramsch, C. (1998).Language and culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kramsch, C., & Sullivan, P. (1996).Appropriate pedagogy.ELT Journal, 50:199-212.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mayer, J. D., &Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? New York: Basic Books.

McDevitt, B. (2004). Negotiating the syllabus: A win-win syllabus.ELT Journal, 58: 3-9.

Niżegorodcew, A. (2011). Understanding culture through a lingua Franca. New York, NY: Springer.

Norton, B. (2001).Non-participation, imagined communities, and the language classroom. Harlow, England: Longman.

Otwinowska-Kasztelanic, A. (2011). Do we need to teach culture and how much culture dowe need?New York, NY: Springer.

Pallant, J (2007). SPSS Survival Manual. London: Open University Press.

Pavlenko, A. (2003). I never knew I was a bilingual: reimagining teacher identities in TESOL. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, ,2:251–268.

Pavlenko, A., & Norton, B. (2007). Imagined communities, identity, and English language teaching. New York, NY: Springer.

Peterson, Elizabeth & Bronwyn Coltrane (2003).Culture in second language teaching.Retrieved fromhttp://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0309peterson.html

Pishghadam, R. (2009). A quantitative analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and foreign language learning.Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6: 31-41.

Pishghadam, R., & Ghonsooli B. (2009).On the role of emotional intelligence in second language learning and academic achievement.Studies in foreign languages, 43: 41-56.

Pishghadam, R., & Saboori, F. (2011). A quantitative survey on Iranian English learners’ attitudes toward varieties of English: World English or World Englishes?English Language and Literature Studies, 1: 86-95.

Pishghadam, R., & Sadeghi Ordoubody, M. (2011). Culture & identity change among Iranian EFL teachers. Ozean Journal of Social Sciences, 4: 1-13.

Pishghadam, R., &Saboori, F. (2011). A qualitative analysis of ELT in the language institutes of Iran in the light of the theory of World Englishes. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2:569-579.

Pishghadam, R., &Kamyabi, A. (2008).The relationship between accent and deculturation among EFL learners in Iran. 7th International TELLSI Conference, October 2009.

Pishghadam, R., &Navari, S. (2009). Cultural literacy in language learning: Enrichment or derichment?International Conference on Languages, 694-700.

Pishghadam, R., & Zabihi, R. (2012).Crossing the threshold of Iranian TEFL.Applied Research in English, 1: 57-67.

Pishghadam, R. & Sadeghi, M. (2011). Home culture attachment and access to social/cultural capital: A case of Iranian English foreign language teachers. African Journal of Research, 2: 569- 579.

Pulverness, A. (2014). Distinctions & Dichotomies: Culture-free, Culture-bound. English Teaching Professionals, 14: 17.

Purba, H. (2011). The importance of including culture in EFL teaching.Journal of Language Teaching, 1: 1-13.

Richards, J. & Schmidt, R. (2010).Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. England: Pearson Education Limited.

Risager, K. (2006). Language and culture: Global flows and local complexity. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Sarıgül, E & Ashton, S. (2014). Culture and English language teaching: Raising Awareness.Retrieved fromhttp://eprints.qut.edu.au

Schumann, J. H. (1978). The Acculturation Model for Second-Language Acquisition.In Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching.Washington D.C: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Shutte, N.S.,Malouff, J.M.,Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D.J., Cooper, J. T., &Dornheim, L. (1998).Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence.Personality and individual differences, 25:167-177.

Skourdi, S. &Rahimi, A. (2010).The relationship of emotional intelligence and linguistic intelligence in acquiring vocabulary. California Linguistic Notes, 1: 1-24.

Smith, L. (1985).  What is the difference andwhat difference does the difference make?Forum, 22.

Tsou, Wenli (2005). The effects of cultural instruction on foreign language learning.RELC Journal,36:1.