تأثیر دوزبانگی بر شناخت: مطالعة دوزبانه‌های آذری- فارسی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد زبان‌شناسی همگانی، دانشکدة ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار، زبان‌شناسی همگانی، دانشکدة ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استادیار، روان‌شناسی دانشکدة روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

مطالعة دوزبانگی از دیدگاه شناختی مسئله‌ای است که در سال‌های اخیر محققان زیادی را به خود مشغول ‌کرده‌ است و در این میان پژوهش‌های بسیاری برتری شناختی دوزبانه‌ها نسبت به تک‌زبانه‌ها را گزارش ‌کرده‌اند. با توجه به کثرت دوزبانگی در ایران، نیاز به مطالعة هرچه بیشتر و عمیق‌تر این پدیده از جنبه‌های مختلف احساس می‌شود. تحقیق حاضر، با هدف بررسی شناختی دوزبانگی در ایران، به تأثیر دوزبانگی بر کنش‌های اجرایی در دوزبانه‌های آذری- فارسی ‌پرداخته ‌است. بدین منظور، آزمون ویسکانسین بین 72 دانشجو (36 نفر دوزبانه و 36 نفر تک‌زبانه) اجرا شد و نتایج تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیره از برتری دوزبانه‌ها در کنش‌های اجرایی به‌طورکل و انعطاف‌پذیری به‌طورخاص حکایت‌ داشت. این نتایج که تأییدی است بر یافته‌های تحقیقات پیشین، نشان‌دهندة این حقیقت است که برتری شناختی دوزبانه‌ها ناشی از ماهیت به‌کارگیری دو زبان متفاوت است و نه نوع زبان.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Bilingual Effect on Cognition: A Study on Azari- Farsi Bilinguals

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sara Arbabi 1
  • Shahla Sharifi 2
  • Ali Mashhadi 3
1 MA. Student of General Linguistics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, I.R. Iran
2 Associate Professor, General Linguistics Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, I.R. Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Psychology Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, I.R. Iran
چکیده [English]

Cognitive aspects of bilingualism have been recently studied by many
researchers and lots of them have reported bilingual advantage over
monolinguals in some aspects of cognition. Given the multitude of bilinguals in
Iran, further and deeper studies of various aspects of this phenomenon seem to
require. In order to study bilingualism in Iran from a cognitive point of view,
the present study examines the effect of bilingualism on executive functions
among Azari- Persian bilinguals. To serve this purpose, Wisconsin Card Sorting
task was administered to 72 university students (36 bilinguals and 36
monolinguals). Results suggested bilingual advantage in executive functions in
general and flexibility in particular. While the findings confirm those of
previous similar studies, they can indicate that bilingual advantage is an
outcome of bilingualism in general and is not dependent on the types of
languages used.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • bilingualism
  • Cognition
  • executive functions
  • Flexibility
  • monolingualism
Aghagolzadi, F. (2004). Bilingualism as cognitive phenomonon in psycholinguostics political theory. J. Humanities, 11(3), 1-9.

Anderson, P.J. (2008). Towards a developmental of  executive function. In Anderson, V., Jacobs, R. & Anderson, P. J. (Eds.). Executive functions and the frontal lobes: a lifespan perspective. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Axelrod, B. N. (2002). Are normative data from the 64-card version of the WCST comparable to the full WCST? The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 16(1), 7-11.     

Baker, C. (2001).  Foundation of bilingual education and bilingualism (3rd. edition). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Barceló, F., and Knight, R.T. (2002). Both random and perseverative errors underlie WCST deficits in prefrontal patients. Neuropsychologia, 40(3), 349-356.

Bialystok, E., and Martin, M.M. (2004). Attention and inhibition in bilingual children: Evidence   from the dimensional change card sort task. Developmental science, 7(3), 325-339.

Bialystok, E. (1999). Cognitive complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind. Child development, 70(3), 636-644.

Bialystok, E., and Viswanathan, M. (2009). Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures. Cognition, 112(3), 494-500.

Bull, R., and Scerif, G. (2001). Executive functioning as a predictor of children's mathematics ability: Inhibition, switching, and working memory. Developmental neuropsychology, 19(3), 273-293.

Carlson, S.M., and Meltzoff, A.N. (2008). Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children. Developmental science, 11(2), 282-298.

Chan, C.W.Y., Lam, L.C., Wong, T.C.M., & Chiu, H.F.K. (2003). Modified Card Sorting Test Performance among community dwelling elderly chinese people. Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry, 13(2), 2-7.

Donders, J., and Wildeboer, M.A. (2004). Validity of the WCST-64 after traumatic brain injury in children. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 18(4), 521-527.

Greve, K.W. (2001). The WCST-64: A standardized short-form of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 15(2), 228-234.

Hakuta, K. (1987). Degree of bilingualism and cognitive ability in mainland Puerto Rican children. Child Development, 58: 1372-1388.

Hamidi, Mansur Ali. (1384/2005). Doganegi-e zaban dar khane va amuzeshgah dar Iran: Zamine ha va payamad ha dar PIRLS (Duality of language at home and school in Iran: issues and consequences to the PIRLS). Faslnameye olume ensani-e daneshgahe alzahra (Journal of human sciences of  Alzahra University), 15(1), 1-14.

Jodzio, K., and Biechowska, D. (2010). Wisconsin card sorting test as a measure of executive function impairments in stroke patients. Applied neuropsychology, 17(4), 267-277.

Luk, G., De Sa, E. R. I. C., and Bialystok, E. (2011). Is there a relation between onset age of bilingualism and enhancement of cognitive control. Bilingualism: Language and cognition, 14(4), 588-595.

Marian, V., Blumenfeld, H. K., and Kaushanskaya, M. (2007). The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Assessing language profiles in bilinguals and multilinguals. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 50(4), 940- 967.

Martin-Rhee, M.M., and Bialystok, E. (2008). The development of two types of inhibitory control in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(1), 81–93.

Mashhadi, A., Rasulzade Tabatabayi, K., Azad Falah, P. and Soltanifar, A. (1389/2010). Tavanayi-e barname rizi va sazmandehi dar kudakane mobtala be ekhtelale naresayi tavajogh/ fozun koneshi (The ability of planning and organization  in ADHD Children). Motaleate tarbiati va ravanshenasi (Studies in education and psychology), 11(1), 151- 170.

Mashhadi, A., Rasulzade Tabatabayi, K., Azad Falah, P. and Soltanifar, A. (1388/2009). Moghayeseye bazdari pasokh va kontorole tavajoh dar kudakane mobtala be ekhtelale naresayi tavajogh/ fozun koneshi va kudakane behanjar (The Comparison of Response Inhibiti on and Interference Control in ADHD and Normal Children). Ravanshenasi-e balini (Journal of clinical science), 1(2), 37- 50.

McCloskey, G., Van Divner, B.R., and Perkins, L.A. (2008). Assessment and Intervention for executive function difficulties. New York: Routledge.

Merrick, E.E., Donders, J., nd Wiersum, M. (2003). Validity of the WCST-64 after traumatic brain injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist,17 ( 2): 153–158.

Morton, J. B., & Harper, S. N. (2007). What did Simon say? Revisiting the bilingual advantage.  Developmental Science, 10(6), 719-726.

Myerz- Scotton, C. (2006). Multiple voices: An introduction to bilingualism. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Nilipour, R. (1390/ 2011). Zabanshenasi va asibshenai-e zaban (Linguistics and language pathology). Tehran: Hermes.

Prior, A., and MacWhinney, B. (2010). A bilingual advantage in task switching. Bilingualism:    Language and Cognition, 13(2), 253-262.    

Roberts, D.L., and Penn, D.L. (2009). The effects of task engagement and interpersonal rapport   on WCST performance in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 12(1), 57-72.

Salthouse, T.A., Atkinson, T.M., and Berish, D.E. (2003). Executive functioning as a potential mediator of age-related cognitive decline in normal adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132(4), 566 –594.

Salvatierra, J.L., and Rosselli, M. (2011). The effect of bilingualism and age on inhibitory control. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15(1), 26-37.

Sherer, M., Nick, T.G., Millis, S.R., and Novack, T.A. (2003). Use of the WCST and the WCST- 64 in the assessment of traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25(4), 512-520.

Steinmetz, J.P., and Houssemand, C. (2011). What About Inhibition in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test?. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 25(4), 652-669.

Strauss, E.H., Sherman, E.M.S. and Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. (3rd. edition). Oxford: Oxford University   Press.

Van Eylen, L., Boets, B., Steyaert, J., Evers, K., Wagemans, J., and Noens, I. (2011). Cognitive flexibility in autism spectrum disorder: Explaining the inconsistencies?. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(4), 1390-1401.

Wagner, G.P., and Trentini, C.M. (2009). Assessing executive functions in older adults: a  omparison between the manual and the computer-based versions of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Psychology & Neuroscience, 2(2), 195-198.

Yang, S., Yang, H., and Lust, B. (2011). Early childhood bilingualism leads to advances in executive attention: Dissociating culture and language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 14(3), 412- 422.