Document Type : research article


1 Assistant Professor of Italian Literature University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 MA in Classics University of Pisa Pisa, Italy


By comparing the linguistic structure of epithets in Shahname with the same structures in literary works of classical Western epic tradition, many similarities can be achieved, all of which indicate a common cultural and linguistic tradition among Indo-European peoples based upon similar functions in semiotics. One of the most important features of Shahname, which is comparable linguistically to classical epos, is the epic formulas. These elements are often accompanied by repetition and emphasis and appear frequently in order to form the epic effect. The history of epic formulas in classical Western literature dates back to Homer; the linguistic functions of epic formulas also play an important role in Ferdowsi's Shahname, but their prevalence differs from that of Homer and Virgil in terms of the prosodic structure and literary traditions prevalent in Persian epics. One of the common ways to use the epic formulas is inserting epithets as the titles and attributes that come after the names of the heroes; in this structures with the aid of repetition, the writer increase the effect of speech on the audience. In the present article, we have tried to measure the linguistic effects of the application of epic formulas in Western literature compared to Ferdowsi's masterpiece as the supreme model of Persian epic. In our interdisciplinary research approach we aimed to analysis the various functionalities of these structures particularly from the perspective of discourse analysis.


Main Subjects

  1. Aristotele, Poetica, traduzione e introduzione di Guido Paduano, Laterza, Bari, 1998
  2. Citti, Vittorio, Libro di Greco, Societa` Editrice internazionale, Torino, 1996
  3. Della corte, Francesco, Disegno storico, Loescer, Torino, 1954
  4. Di Donato, Riccardo, Esperienza di Omero, Nistri Lischi, Pisa, 1999
  5. Di Sacco-Serio, Il mondo latino 1, Bruno Mondadori, Milano, ristampa, 2018
  6. Garbarino, Giovanna, Storia e Testi, Paravia, Torino, 2001
  7. Giunta, Claudio, Retorica e Stilistica, Universita` di Pisa, 2003
  8. Graziosi and (J.) Haubold Homer. The Resonance of Epic. London: Duckworth, 2005
  9. Griffin, Jasper, The Odyssey, Cambridge University Press, 2004
  10. Bozorgian Hossein; Meysam Muhammadpour. "Metacognitive Intervention: High WMC Learners’ Listening Performance and Metacognitive Awareness". Foreign Language Research Journal, 9, 4, 2020, 1055-1084.
  11. Jensen, M. S. 2017, The Challenge of Oral Epic to Homeric Scholarship, Copenhagen.
  12. La penna, Antonio, Virgilio e la crisi del mondo antico, Sansoni editore,
    1. Loescher, 1968