Application of Michael Riffaterre's Semiotic Theory in Analyzing Nima's "Phoenix"



According to Michael Riffaterre's (1924-2006) semiotic theory, the reading of poems includes two stages; an exploratory (heuristic)and a reading-oriented (retroactive) stage. The first stage involves the search for meaning and the second stage considers the implications of language. This approach in reading the text may explain the relationship between covert and internal accumulation of elements and systems in the text. This then brings the reader or critic to the Hypogram and ultimately leads to the perception of these issues and uncovers the poems structural matrix. In Nima's "Phoenix",after the consideration of ungrammatical elements, the accumulation, descriptive systems and the structural matrix of the "Phoenix" are uncovered as follows;the accumulation of the Phoenix, its location and community, the descriptive systems of despair and homesickness of the poet and the indifference and despair of the society, and the matrix of despair - suffering and sorrow - death – and a promising future.