عنوان مقاله [English]
Speech acts are utterances that perform some action in their very enunciation. Linguists have proposed different classifications of the concept, the first of which belongs to J. Austin. These classifications distinguish different classes of speech acts based on the way three simultaneous acts, including locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts, are performed. One of these classes is called imperative-directive or incentive speech acts, which motivate the hearer to perform an action. This class is further divided into different subclasses such as ‘suggestion’, ‘invitation’, ‘request’, etc.
The present study is an attempt to analyze and identify the main formulas used for ‘suggesting’ in Russian verbal environment. The linguistic elements contributing to ‘suggestion’ can be divided into three main categories including verbs, short adjectives, and particles. In the first category, there are such verbs as хотеть (to want), мочь (to be able to), согласиться (to agree), the negative form of the verb возражать (to oppose), etc. Cогласен/согласна/согласны (Do you agree?) is a short adjective used to express ‘suggestion’. As for the category of particles, which are auxiliary particles of speech, there are the interrogative particle ли (whether), бы (used to render conditional and subjunctive patterns), the negative particle не, and the imperative particle давай[-те] (come[sgl/pl]). Using the above-mentioned linguistic elements, the interrogative intonation as well as strategies of politeness, modesty, confirmation, and agreement contribute to the politeness of ‘suggestion’.